During the Second World War, U.S. government initiated an improvement programme “Training Within Industry” with aims of providing education regarding the importance of continuous improvement (CI). After the war, CI was taught to post-war Japan through works of Deming and Juran (Shingo and Robinson, 1990). Based on those lectures, Japanese developed their own way of CI thinking, nowadays known as kaizen (Imai, 1986).
Besides previously discussed Quality Management Systems (QMS), there are also Quality Management Frameworks (QMF) which aim to provide guidance. Companies can use these frameworks to benchmark the performance of their QMS, and can use the guidance of QMF to strive for excellence.
Previously presented definitions of quality could be considered new, but philosophy of quality is far from new. Well known Greek philosopher and polymath Aristotle considered qualities as hylomorphically formal attributes, and described four types of qualitative opposites: correlatives, contraries, privatives and positives (Whitaker, 1996).